What are some of the benefits of the federal bureaucracy
6 Advantages and Disadvantages of Bureaucracy
A major federal bureaucracy benefit is essentially its capability of organizing and undertaking large tasks. Since is a hierarchical organization with a clear command chains, it is able to both mobilize and also coordinate the work of numerous people simultaneously. This ensures high quality work is done as the workers will be supervised keenly. Dec 16, · Health insurance, vacation time, and even a retirement pension would all be included as part of the security a bureaucracy can provide. 3. It discourages favoritism. In a bureaucracy that is run successfully, the impersonal nature of the relationships that are formed create unique advantages.
The federal bureaucracy is a creature of Congress and the president. But agencies independently make policy and exert power: legislating by rulemaking; executing by implementation; and adjudicating by hearing complaints, prosecuting cases, and judging disputes. Congresses and presidents often enact laws setting forth broad goals with little idea of how to get there.
They get publicity in the media and take credit for addressing a problem—and pass tough questions on how to solve the problem to the bureaucracy. Take the Occupational Safety and Health Act of It had to decide on answers for questions: What work conditions produce or endanger safety? Learn more about the history of OSHA. When not all specified goals are equally simple to pursue, agencies gravitate toward those easier to put into effect.
OSHA was championed by labor organizations that deemed health hazards on the job to be a bigger problem than safety. Congress requires agencies to follow prescribed detailed procedures in issuing a rule. The explosion of New Deal agencies in the s created inconsistency from one agency to the next. Inthe Federal Registerwhich prints all rules and decisions made by agencies, was launched to provide a common source. The ever-rising number of pages annually in the Register shows ever lengthier, ever more intricate rules.
Check out the Federal Register. In the first round, the agency interprets the statute to be applied and lists grounds for a preliminary decision. Next, it invites feedback: holding hearings or eliciting written comments from the public, Congress, and elsewhere in the executive branch.
Then it issues a final rule, after which litigation can ensue; the rule may be annulled if courts conclude that the agency did not adequately justify it. Thus in March a federal judge ordered the Food and Drug Administration to lower the minimum age at which women could obtain the Plan B birth control pill without prescription from eighteen to seventeen. He ruled the agency had improperly bowed to pressure from the Bush administration in setting the limit at eighteen.
Any rule listed in the Federal Register has the status and force of law. The agency can modify the rule only by the same arduous process.
The new rule, first unveiled inwent through lengthy review before being finally issued in late Several states in the Northeast subject to acid rain caused by Midwestern power plants promptly sued but did not win in court. Such rulemaking deep in the federal bureaucracy rarely achieves the media attention that an open debate and decision in Congress would attract—making it an unobtrusive way for officials to accomplish something politically unpopular, such as relaxing clean-air standards.
The bureaucracy makes policy through implementationor applying general policies to given cases. Agencies transform abstract legal language into specific plans and organizational structures. There are rarely simple tests to assess how faithfully they do this. So even the lowliest bureaucrat wields power through implementation. Immigration agents decide which foreigners to grant asylum in the United States.
Internal Revenue Service agents decide which tax returns to audit. The Postal Service mini truck is a common sight in the United States.
The USPS is what is an aristocratic government example of an independent federal bureaucracy. It was founded by Benjamin Franklin. What is the towing capacity of a ford flex implementation can be easily measured.
Congress and presidents want the Postal Service to balance its budget but also to deliver mail expeditiously and at low cost to the sender and to provide many politically popular but costly services—such as Saturday delivery, keeping post offices open at rural hamlets, and adopting low postal rates for sending newspapers and magazines.
Ambiguous goals also pose problems for agencies. When the Social Security Administration SSA was formed in the s, it set up an efficient way to devise standards of eligibility such as age and length of employment for retirement benefits. In the s, Congress gave the SSA the task of determining eligibility for supplementary security how to be a heartbreaker mp3 and disability insurance.
Figuring out who was disabled enough to qualify was far more complex than determining criteria of eligibility for retirement. Enmeshed in controversy, the SSA lost public support. Agencies act like courts through administrative adjudication : applying rules and precedents to individual cases in an adversarial setting with a defense and prosecution. That ruling may be appealed to the full NLRB. Only then may the case go to federal court.
How can civil servants prove they are doing their jobs? On a day-to-day basis, it is hard to show that vague policy goals are being met. Instead, they demonstrate that the agency is following agreed-on routines for processing cases— standard operating procedures SOPs. Sometimes, only severe crises jar agencies out of their inertia.
Agencies are alert to and heed the power what are some of the benefits of the federal bureaucracy the president and Congress over their activities. But agencies can effectively influence Congress and presidents as much as the other way around. And if How to make chicken wire sculptures and presidents disagree, agencies are in the happy situation what are some of the benefits of the federal bureaucracy responding to the branch that is closer to what they want to do.
Without such support, agencies find their programs how to care for a cactus plant by others, their budgets slashed, and their claims to expertise doubted. Favorable media coverage is instrumental in building this political support. Agencies also obtain political support by shifting policies when new political participants challenge their standard approach.
Agencies are part of the executive branch. Presidents select heads of agencies and make numerous other political appointees to direct and control them. But political appointees have short careers in their offices; they average just over two years. Presidents are tempted to pursue implementation by agencies to accomplish policy goals that Congress has frustrated. Tools of this administrative presidency include establishing agencies, strategic appointments, internal reorganization, and budget cuts.
Presidents can set up an agency by executive order—and dare Congress not to authorize and fund it. President John F. Kennedy issued an executive order to launch the Peace Corps after Congress did not act on his legislative request. Only then did Congress authorize, and allocate money for, the new venture. Agencies created by presidents are smaller than those begun by Congress; but presidents have more control of their structure and personnel.
Presidents make strategic appointments. Agency personnel are open to change when new appointees take office. Presidents can appoint true-believer ideologues to the cabinet who become prominent in the news, stand firm against the sway of the civil service, and deflect criticism away from the president.
Presidents also can and do fire agency officials who question the White House line. His remarks were covered heavily in the news—as was his dismissal. Early in his term, George W. Bush the first president to graduate from business school made few appointments to the Securities and Exchange Commission that regulates the stock market; he only boosted its staff after financial scandals rocked Wall Street in President Richard Nixon faced a ballooning welfare budget after taking office in Congress failed to act on welfare reform.
Nixon turned to administrative measures to slow federal outlays. Deeply conservative appointees initiated new rules; instead of worrying about denying welfare to someone who was qualified, they stressed reducing the number of ineligible persons receiving benefits. Civil servants were moved out of offices devoted to specific programs and reported to managers who graded them on their ability to cut costs.
The how to long hair bun Welfare rolls leveled off despite a worsening economy. Presidents pursue the administrative presidency most effectively with programs that are obscure or unpopular with the public. Otherwise, they risk reactions on Capitol Hill. For example, President Ronald Reagan, seeking more leeway for business, successfully restrained the EPA in his first term.
He appointed loyal, lightning-rod individuals who went to Congress and asked for budget reductions. He left positions vacant. He shifted authority to the states. He subjected environmental laws to cost-benefit calculations that emphasized tangible costs of regulation over intangible benefits. After two years, fewer new regulations were issued, and environmental standards and enforcement were relaxed. These victories produced a backlash.
Civil servants felt excluded. The resultant shift in public opinion made itself known to Congress, which eventually led Reagan to fire the agency heads. Under new, more moderate leadership, the EPA veered away from its relentlessly probusiness stance. Andrew Card right was George W. The Chief of Staff performs many duties for the president, including media interaction. The two are pictured here on Air Force One the day of the September 11 terrorist attacks.
The administrative presidency does not work unless presidents and their political appointees clearly articulate what they wish to accomplish at the outset. Bureaucrats cannot respond to conflicting or confused signals from political appointees. George W. Bush carried coordination of presidential and agency communication one step further by ensuring that the White House, not the department secretary, would appoint the press officers in each cabinet department.
It is a communications team for the executive branch of government. Presidential appointments, especially of cabinet secretaries, are one way to control the bureaucracy.
But cabinet secretaries have multiple loyalties.
Everyday Examples of Bureaucracies
Feb 12, · But some do find that the “red tape” involved with bureaucracy does have benefits. An example would be the Food and Drug Administration ensuring that American health is properly protected. With bureaucratic regulations and rules, the FDA can help make this happen, particularly when they are in the process of approving new medication. The bureaucracy often has some flexibility, known as administrative discretion, in actual implementation. The routine of bureaucracy — collecting fees, issuing permits, giving tests, and so on — is the administration of its defined purpose. The federal bureaucracy makes regulations (the rules by which federal and state programs operate. Another benefit of bureaucracies for employees is job security, such as a steady salary, and other perks, like insurance, medical and disability coverage, and a retirement pension. Cons of bureaucracy Americans rarely have anything good to say about bureaucracies, and .
When Congress passes a law, it sets down guidelines to carry out the new policies. Actually putting these policies into practice is known as implementation. Often, policy directives are not clearly defined, and bureaucrats must interpret the meaning of the law. The bureaucracy often has some flexibility, known as administrative discretion, in actual implementation.
The routine of bureaucracy — collecting fees, issuing permits, giving tests, and so on — is the administration of its defined purpose. The federal bureaucracy makes regulations the rules by which federal and state programs operate through an administrative process known as rule making. Regulations can be challenged in court, and they are not put into effect until the legal issues are resolved. Previous Controlling the Size of Bureaucracy. Next The Structure of the Federal Bureaucracy.
Removing book from your Reading List will also remove any bookmarked pages associated with this title. Are you sure you want to remove bookConfirmation and any corresponding bookmarks? My Preferences My Reading List. American Government. The Functions of the Federal Bureaucracy. Adam Bede has been added to your Reading List!
<- How to dress in your 40s and 50s - How to play piano accordian->